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A Writer's Handbook

Plagiarism

  • Because academic integrity is so valuable in anything you do, a discussion on plagiarism is important when being asked to use documented sources of any kind.
  • The JSCC Libraries provides a basic tutorial on plagiarism found within the Plagiarism tab under “Writing and Citing” and by clicking the “Plagiarism 2.0” link.
  • Note: if you are off campus, you will be required to provide authentication in order to access the video; follow the instructions for logging in.
  • If you are not a JSCC student, contact your college library about information and tutorials on plagiarism!

Types of Plagiarism

  • The Paper Bomber:  A direct cut and paste job will cause a paper to receive a 0.  This is, simply put, a direct, word-for-word copy, and is direct and intentional plagiarism.
  • The Ghost Author:  A time consuming process by which a writer copies directly from a source, but then changes some words with synonyms so as the direct wording will not automatically show up as copied.  This will also cause a paper to receive a 0.
  • The Unintentional Plagiarizer:  This type of plagiarism encompasses many actions:
  1. Part of a source might be mentioned, but there is no citation or the work is not on a works cited page
  2. Information may be put in quotation marks, but there is no introduction of the source or citation attached to it
  3. A source’s information might be put in quotation marks, but those words within are not the exact words taken from the work
  4. A source’s direct information may be used and cited, but the direct wording is not in quotation marks
  5. A source’s information might be paraphrased in the writer’s own words, and the source might be listed on the works cited page, but there is no citation
  • This is the most common type of plagiarism.  All of these under the heading of “Unintentional Plagiarism” will also cause a paper to receive a 0 even if the writer did not intend plagiarism.

Overall Tips When It Comes to Plagiarism

  • DON’T Do It
  • If you are unsure about the use of information, cite it, or ask your instructor about the need for citation
  • Plagiarism will be reported and penalties can range from lowered grades on rewritten papers and zeroes on papers to F’s in courses depending on the severity and occurrence of plagiarism
  • Many teachers would rather have your rushed, poorly thought out ORIGINAL ideas over copied and pasted PLAGIARIZED sections of work any day
  • It takes longer to “rewrite” a copied paragraph by changing words to cleverly disguise plagiarism than it does just to write your own thoughts
  • YOUR IDEAS HAVE MERIT, so have confidence in your own thoughts
  • If you are writing about literature, READ THE PIECE you are writing on – almost 100% of students that do not read a work of literature will seek an outside source to plagiarize and summarize points in that work
  • DON’T Do It…There is a reason this note is on here twice!

Integration of Sources for Essays

See the outline page for placement of primary and secondary source use.  The following details integration of both primary and secondary sources within body paragraphs. 

The main steps are as follows:  

  1. Introduction of the source material being used,
  2. Actually using a quoted or paraphrased portion of the source,
  3. A citation in parenthesis of the source, and
  4. An explanation of the source material into the purpose of the paragraph

Introduction of the source being used

  • Short signal phrases use attributive verbs and context to set up the information to follow as a paraphrase or quote
    • Attributive verbs:  how is the information being presented?  Is the author or character saying, arguing, illustrating, promoting, denying, complementing, supporting?  All of these words are attributive – Using a different verb than the same “says” every time will add complexity to your writing.
    • Context:  what is going on around the section of information you are using and from whom is the information coming?  Is a character within a story about to complete an action, is he or she talking with another character within the story, is he making a decision about something?  Is the source from a secondary critic commenting or arguing a point about the primary piece?

Example:

After Mr. Utterson confronts Dr. Jekyll about his transformation, Jekyll reassures his friend saying, “the moment I choose, I can be rid of Mr. Hyde. I give you my hand upon that…”(Stevenson 58).

  • Complete sentence setups use attributive verbs, context and a complete sentence format to set up both regular quotations and block quotations

Example:

One researcher notes how a work addiction can affect families: “There is little leisure shared among family members when there is a workaholic member.  Leisure, vacations, weekend rest and/or fun seem to run against the grain of the workaholic…Relations with friends and family become increasingly superficial” (Garson 19).

Actual use of the source

  • Use of quote after a short signal phrase (example above from primary source and here from a secondary source)

Example: 

In her essay “Utopia, Dystopia or Anti-utopia?  Gulliver’s Travels and the Utopian Mode of Discourse” critic Chloe Houston observes, “Forever changed by his experience, [Gulliver] is unable to re-assimilate into his own environment” (433).

  • Use of paraphrase (not exact wording – idea put into writer’s own wording) after a short signal phrase and context

Example: 

Swift notes that when Gulliver comes back from his final journey, he is disgusted with his family because Gulliver cannot even look at his wife or children without being uncomfortable (220).

  • Use of quote within the sentence itself after an introduction of who said it

Example:

Researchers Gloria Crisp and Liliana Mina find that “successful transfers are possible, as is good employment after graduation” for many students assessed with weak academic preparation who attend community college (qtd. in Nora 150).

  • Use of quote after context and signal phrase in a complete sentence, and then with a block setup

Example:

When Gulliver returns to England after his last voyage, he tells the reader how much trouble he has readjusting to his human family:

As soon as I entered the House, my Wife took me in her Arms, and kissed me; at which, having not been used to the Touch of that odious Animal for so many Years, I fell in a Swoon for almost an Hour.  At the Time I am writing, it is five Years since my last Return to England:  During the first Year I could not endure my Wife of Children in my Presence, the very Smell of them was intolerable; much less could I suffer them in the same room. (Swift 220)  

Citation of the source (see examples above and explanation of in-text citations below)

Explanation of the source, or the “So What?” or “Post-Quote”

  • The explanation helps link the example or commentary to the main point of the paragraph and entire essay  (see below)

You MUST explain the quote’s meaning to your paragraph:

Chopin paints a picture with the setting quite different from what the mood suggests it should be: “The notes of a distant song…reached [Mrs. Mallard] faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves.” While readers just find out Mrs. Mallard’s husband has died, the contrast of  the melody and bird song have the connotation of happiness; this contrast foreshadows the emotions revealed from Mrs. Mallard in her bedroom.

Exercise 15: Post-quote Explanations

Exercise 15:  Using all the example quotations, brainstorm possible post-quote explanations.

  1. After Mr. Utterson confronts Dr. Jekyll about his transformation, Jekyll reassures his friend saying, “the moment I choose, I can be rid of Mr. Hyde. I give you my hand upon that…”(Stevenson 58).
  2. One researcher notes how a work addiction can affect families: “There is little leisure shared among family members when there is a workaholic member.  Leisure, vacations, weekend rest and/or fun seem to run against the grain of the workaholic…Relations with friends and family become increasingly superficial” (Garson 19).
  3. In her essay “Utopia, Dystopia or Anti-utopia?  Gulliver’s Travels and the Utopian Mode of Discourse” critic Chloe Houston observes, “Forever changed by his experience, [Gulliver] is unable to re-assimilate into his own environment” (433).
  4. Swift notes that when Gulliver comes back from his final journey, he is disgusted with his family because Gulliver cannot even look at his wife or children without being uncomfortable (220).
  5. Researchers Gloria Crisp and Liliana Mina find that “successful transfers are possible, as is good employment after graduation” for many students assessed with weak academic preparation who attend community college (qtd. in Nora 150).
  6. When Gulliver returns to England after his last voyage, he tells the reader how much trouble he has readjusting to his human family:

As soon as I entered the House, my Wife took me in her Arms, and kissed me; at which, having not been used to the Touch of that odious Animal for so many Years, I fell in a Swoon for almost an Hour.  At the Time I am writing, it is five Years since my last Return to England:  During the first Year I could not endure my Wife of Children in my Presence, the very Smell of them was intolerable; much less could I suffer them in the same room. (Swift 220)